The favourable manner in which the former part of this work was received by the Public has been sufficiently demonstrated by the extensive circulation and rapid sale of two editions, which seem to have found their way, not only to every part of Great Britain, but even to the Continent, where the collection of Pompeiana has been noticed with approbation in many of the literary journals. That portion contained an account of almost every thing worthy of notice, which had been laid open by the excavations till the period of its publication ; and the present is intended, not only to supply the omissions of the former work, but to describe those more recent discoveries which are by no means inferior in interest or singularity.

Among these, the excavation of the chalcidicum, which took place soon after the publication of the former work, laid open the only example of that species of edifice which has existed in modern times. Not long afterwards, the great area of the Pantheon was discovered, and the whole circuit of the Forum was perfectly cleared.

The excavations being continued, a wide street occurred, beginning at the arch adjoining the back wall of the Temple of Jupiter in the Forum, and ending in a second triumphal arch, near which were found the bronze fragments of the equestrian statue it had once supported. On the right was discovered a temple of Fortune, doubly interesting because founded by the illustrious family of the Tullii, and, about the centre of the left side of the same street, an entrance was opened into an area which proved to belong to the public baths or thermae of the city. Some of the apartments of this edifice yet remained covered by stone arches, which, having resisted the pressure of the cinders and accumulated earth, retained, in all their original freshness of colour, those beautiful ornaments and fretted ceilings, of which so few have resisted the lapse of eighteen centuries.

The discovery of the baths is perhaps of greater consequence than may at first appear, for, notwithstanding the enormous ruins of the Roman thermae, their component parts seem to have been little understood, and even variously named by the authors who have undertaken their elucidation. At Pompeii, on the contrary, the absence of xystus, Theatre, Palaestra, and an infinite number of other intricate divisions which render the thermae of the great Capital so complicated and unintelligible, leaves a satisfactory and defined idea of the use and meaning of every other portion of the fabric.

Previously to the discovery of the baths, the whole of a narrow alley behind the chalcidicum had been cleared and a passage opened to the street running between the Forum and the thermae. From that alley a still smaller avenue ran between the chalcidicum and the building which is known on the spot by the name of the Pantheon ; thus adding to the former map of Pompeii an entire square or island of public edifices and habitations, and forming, in itself, no mean acquisition to the antiquary. This excavation was also remarkable for the discovery of an ancient well of considerable depth, and still retaining fifteen feet of water, which, from its situation, might possibly have been there before the destruction of the city.

These various objects, with the house, named that of the Tragic Poet, situated opposite to the northern side of the thermae, cover a plot of ground advancing nearer to the centre of Pompeii than any which had formerly been cleared, and, in consequence of a greater depth of superincumbent soil, they have, generally, been found in a better state of preservation. They form, altogether, the connexion of two portions of the plan of the city, which were scarcely united by the unfinished excavation of the Forum at the period of the former publication. The house of the Tragic Poet has exhibited superior specimens of painting, while the subject of ancient art itself is exciting more of the public attention, and meeting with merited though tardy admiration, through the zeal and industry of M. Ternite, who is engraving at Berlin a superb collection of the pictures of Herculaneum and Pompeii under the auspices of the King of Prussia.

With such an accession of new materials, the Author of the present work has thought it advisable to lay them before the public without delay, aware that time will incalculably diminish the freshness of those objects, which, when stripped of their external coats by the rains of winter or the burning suns of summer, lose by far the greater portion of their interest and identity.

Another motive for the immediate publication of whatever can be collected, is the great and increasing difficulty of obtaining permission to draw and measure the newly-discovered antiquities, by which a foreigner is reduced to snatch from eternal oblivion only such morsels as a favourable moment may enable him to delineate. An astonishing number of interesting objects is annually and hourly destroyed by the action of the weather upon substances and surfaces which have been once subjected to the operation of heat and moisture ; and this unavoidable decay is the more to be lamented, as strangers are seldom allowed to draw till the decomposition both of colour and substance has taken place to a great extent ; while, even if they were delineated by a native artist, there are no engravers on the spot of sufficient skill to multiply the copies, nor a public sufficiently educated to encourage the sale of them.

An instance of the delay which takes place in the native publications may be observed in the description of the Temple of Isis, which, though discovered at so early a period, is only at this moment in the progress of illustration by the care of the Cavaliere Carelli, whose elaborate account of that interesting relic, with drawings made at the time of the excavation, is only now in preparation ; while the monument itself has already lost the last vestiges of the beauty and freshness in which it first appeared.

It has often been noticed, during the winter months, that the stuccos which had been observed perfect, during a first visit to any newly-discovered edifice, had entirely disappeared on a second examination ; so that, no traces being left, many of the prettiest fancies of antiquity are irrecoverably lost ; while the order continues to prevent strangers from drawing till three or four years have expired, and the objects become defaced. At the present moment, in the year 1826, only those parts of Pompeii can be drawn and measured with the consent of those immediately concerned, which have heen discovered prior to the year 1823, or which, in other words, after the publication of the former portion of this work, have little or no novelty to recommend them. A foreign antiquary can only hope for better times and a more liberal policy with regard to Pompeii ; at present, while a sort of patent exists, by which a very eminent architect and scene-painter possesses the exclusive privilege of publishing antiquities, to which it does not appear that he has ever particularly turned his attention, a stranger meets with almost insurmountable difficulties, and nothing is known to the literary world of the most important discoveries. For a time, the gentlemanly feeling of those who were employed in the execution of this seeming monopoly of antiquarian research, induced them to overlook some occasional violations of the rigid order for exclusion from the latest discoveries ; but, on a recent change in the department, the acting Superintendent having done the present work the honour to consider it as the principal means of conveying to the public a faithful account of the latest discoveries of Pompeii, has made the interdiction of it the subject of a particular injunction ; a circumstance very creditable to the work, but at the same time rendering its execution more difficult (1).

In the course of the year 1825 three new works appeared on Pompeii, of which that of Mr. Goldicutt, of London, seems to possess a considerable degree of splendour. One, undertaken by Captain de Goro, in folio, under the patronage of the Emperor of Austria, is written in German, and was received with approbation by his learned countrymen. The other is by Signor Carlo Bonucci, the Neapolitan architect, now, in 1827, director of the new excavations at Herculaneum, and nephew of Signor Bonucci, formerly the excellent and indefatigable director of the excavations at Pompeii. This volume, which has been twice printed, is intended as a pocket companion and guide to those who visit the spot, and is both convenient as to size, and replete with every information which might be expected from the enthusiasm, talents, and opportunities of an author whose whole occupation is the study of Pompeii, where he became director in 1828. It is to him that we are indebted for the communication of what appears to be the just interpretation of all those inscriptions at Pompeii which have an accusative termination, and which have hitherto so much puzzled the antiquary.

The letters AED, which had been supposed to refer to the house, seem really to signify the aedile whose favour was invoked by the owner of the shop : an easy and satisfactory interpretation, which leaves no further doubt on the subject. As an example that of Paratus may be given :

Pansam. Aed. Paratus. rog.
Paratus invokes Pansa the Aedi1e.

The editors of the Museo Borbonico have also announced their intention of publishing an account of the recent discoveries at Pompeii, and will, doubtless, communicate many particulars which their official situation enables them only to collect. To these may be added the magnificent map of M. Bibent, on so large a scale that the details of every house are represented, but not at present, February, 1827, containing the latest excavations.

It may not be quite uninteresting to notice the progress of the excavations, which, notwithstanding all that has been said on the subject to the contrary, seem to have been as well conducted, and as steadily pursued, as times and circumstances have permitted. Since the return of the legitimate sovereign, more than half of the Forum has been cleared, the Senaculum or Temple of Jupiter, the chalcidicum, the Temple of Mercury, the Pantheon, the Temple of Venus, that of Fortune, the thermae, and innumerable private houses have been disinterred ; and, though it be true that more labourers might have been employed, it is not less so that the work ought not to proceed, till the objects already explored are roofed and fortified against the weather. At present, considerable expense attends the excavation, on account of the greater depth of soil which occurs toward the centre of the city. The preservation of the vaults of the thermae has been a work of no trifling importance ; and both time and skill are necessary in the application of the means best calculated to hand down to posterity whatever can be saved of these crumbling relics of antiquity. The merit of Signor Bonucci the elder has been conspicuous on these occasions, and it is to be hoped that his successor may continue the system. The director is assisted by an intendant, who is on the spot, and by three overseers, who not only watch the workmen, but sometimes show objects of particular interest to travellers. In addition to these, is a number of inferior custodi or guardians, whose chief duties consist in accompanying visitors, or taking care of such ruins as, being considered of more importance, are shut up from the vulgar by way of protection from wanton injury, or the inscription of names by which many beautiful relics have suffered. It is usual for travellers to bestow a trifle upon the custodi. Till human nature can be changed, this is the best way of rewarding civility, for the keepers of museums and cabinets who are not permitted to take money, have been always observed to hurry the stranger through their respective departments, instead of gratifying his curiosity.

It has been the custom to honour the arrival of illustrious personages by excavating in their presence some small portion of Pompeii ; an enviable method of showing respect exclusively possessed by the court of Naples. For these occasions, an order is given that the earth should be left undisturbed to the depth of a foot or more, in several of the rooms of a newly-discovered house, and, on the day appointed, these are cleared out for the amusement of the guests. It is seldom a fruitless search, as the overseers are previously aware that some curiosities exist, though they know not precisely what they may be. An example of the reports made by the overseers on some of these occasions may suffice to give a general idea of the objects which are usually brought to light in the excavations of Pompeii.


«On the fourth of November, 1823, was found, at the height of fourteen palms from the pavement, and in the street running from the Temple of Fortune toward the house of Pansa, the head of a Roman Emperor in bronze, not unlike Caligula. It was three-fourths of a palm high. Soon after, a leg of the same was found, one palm three-fourths long. On November 5th, was found a skeleton, with sixty-five coins of small silver, and two large medals in bronze. On November 8th, was found the body of the Emperor's equestrian statue. The right hand held the reins, and the left was in an attitude of command. On November 9th, the legs of the horse were found, and some portions of the body. The whole was about six palms one-fourth high. On the 10th of November, in the third and fourth houses on the right of this street, were found several articles in the presence of the English minister. These were : a vase with a handle ; an oil vessel with a handle and cover ; six coins of middle size, and some ornaments of a door, all of bronze ; ten lamps of terra cotta, one of a circular form, with an eagle in relievo ; five cups, two earthen pots, into which money was slipped through a hole, and preserved till wanted ; and a number of bronze sockets, or umbilici, on which doors had turned. On November l2th, was found, in the presence of General Baron Frimont, a statue four inches high, plated with silver ; another silver statue of Fortune with the horn of abundance ; six coins, two of a large, and four of middle size ; a patera, the handles of which were covered with silver ; the two hinges or sockets of a door ; a basin ; a lamp, with a handle and cover, for one light ; other hinges of a door ; three buckles for harness ; a glass bottle with a handle ; a fluted tumbler ; eight circular vases of glass ; a little bottle, or lachrymatory, half melted ; a Faun's head of marble ; a cylindric piece of granite, and other objects.»

This may suffice as a specimen of the yet incalculable riches of Pompeii. Not a day passes without the discovery of something of greater or less importance ; while the previous acquisition of at least twenty great statues of marble, and four of bronze, not to mention a countless multitude of smaller figures and precious objects, promises an ample harvest in future. It is certainly surprising that so few skeletons have yet been found in Pompeii ; but, by estimating the number, 160, already discovered at about an eighth of the whole, according to the proportion which the city already laid open bears to the area enclosed by the walis and supposed suburbs, we shall find that nearly one thousand three hundred of the unfortunate inhabitants were destroyed by the fatal eruption ; a computation by no means insignificant to the population of a city scarcely two miles in circuit, and of which so considerable a portion was occupied by public buildings.

It may be necessary to say a few words on the subject of the present deviation from the order observed in the former part of this work, which was divided into dissertations treating distinctly of temples, theatres, and private houses. As it is proposed to follow, if possible, the traces of the excavators, it will be evident that every succeeding portion of the work must have had the same endless distribution and division ; and, in short, that an essay on the Temples of Pompeii could never have been completed till the entire city was disinterred ; and the same observation applies equally to every other species of building. If, therefore, any classification of the edifices be desirable, the task must unavoidably be left to some future author who may be so fortunate as to have the whole of the materials in his possession. The former work was considered as a whole, and, indeed, from the political convulsions which took place at the moment of collecting the materials for it, it seemed probable that some time might elapse before many fresh documents could be produced. At present the case is different ; whatever is published can only be regarded as a repository of details which would otherwise have perished long before the entire city of Pompeii could be explored. The excavations, though proceeding slowly, have laid open other temples and other dwellings, with public edifices of a distinct character, so that, perhaps, no order could be chosen better calculated to convey an exact idea of the relative situations of the various objects than that which their topographical position suggests.

Should it be thought that this volume contains, at its commencement, an account of objects either in some degree previously known, or less interesting than might have been expected from the variety of new matter afforded by the excavations, it may be observed, that it was necessary to insert them for the purpose of uniting the former with the present publication, which would have been defective while a hiatus was suffered to exist in a region so important as the Forum.

In the year 1828, the restrictions with regard to drawing seem to have been removed with respect to the Baths, the house of the Tragic Poet, and some other discoveries of three or four years' standing, but they remain in force with regard to the excavations of more recent date. In the mean time much has been removed, and much has perished ; so that these ruins no longer retain the aspect which they originally presented. The super-intendence of the excavations has, however, been conferred on a more worthy person, and antiquaries may hope for the abolition of exclusion. Excepting the outlines of a few of the paintings which have been published in the Museo Borbonico, it may be observed that nearly the whole of the objects detailed in this work might have passed away without representation or record, had not the Author been on the spot, and thus been enabled to avail himself of every favourable moment for acquiring the necessary materials for this work, which, should it be found to be less perfect than the former portion, has nevertheless been attended with more than tenfold difficulty in the execution.

The views and pictures have been uniformly made by the Author, as before, with the prism of Dr. Wollaston, and the drawings have been compared with such copies of the originals as have been published in the Museo Borbonico at Naples.

(1)  Not believing it possible that any order could emanate from persons in high authority, which proclaimed a jealous or vindictive spirit, the writer mentioned the circumstance to the Cavaliere Carelli, secretary of the Royal Academy. The secretary, with the members, immediately signed a petition stating that, the Author being a member of the Academy, and one who, on all occasions, opened his portfolios and MSS. for the use of those who wanted information on subjects connected with Grecian art, they requested that some return might be made by permission being granted him to visit the excavations at his pleasure, and that, being infirm, he should be allowed to ride at Pompeii. This petition, passing through the hands of the Marchese Ruffo, secretary of state, was immediately and most graciously acceded to by his Majesty, and the necessary orders were issued.
It seemed, indeed, highly improbable that any thing ungenerous in principle could have been intended by the government, and the learned Cavaliere Arditi, who is at the head of the antiquarian department, had often interested himself in behalf of the Author so far as to have had his authority disputed by the underling. It is right to show where the blame really attaches, and that low and ungenerous minds should be deprived of the power of palming their own littlenesses upon the world as the edicts of their betters.